Culture in Lincang is represented by tea culture and minority culture. Lincang city has a large number of ethnic minorities, with strong ethnic custom. Different ethnic groups create different festivals and culture. Cangyuan Wa Autonomous County is one of the only two Wa autonomous counties in China. In Lincang, take Wa people as the representative, the cultures they created have attracted a crowd of tourists.
History of Lincang
During Shang dynasty, the place called “Baihuai” (ancestors of Wa, Bulang and Deang). In Qin and Western Han dynasties, today's Lincang belonged to Ailao kingdom. In the period of the republic of china, it set up Shunning county(顺宁县), Yunxian county(云县), Mianning county(缅宁县), Zhenkang county(镇康县), shuangjiang county(双江县) and Cangyuan and Gengma administrative bureau. On December 26, 2004, with the approval of the state council, Lincang prefecture was abolished and Lincang city, a prefecture-level city was established. On May 6, 2019, the state council agreed to build an innovation demonstration zone of the national sustainable development agenda in Lincang with the theme of innovation-driven development in less-developed border areas with multi-ethnic groups.
Buddhism is the main religion in Lincang, and there are some temples with a long history. The most representative one is Guangyun Buddhist Temple.
Guangyun Burmese Temple is one of the most influential temples that have influence on Theravada Buddhism among southwestern ethnic groups of Yunnan. It is a Theravada Buddhism building that located in the north of Mengdong town in Canyuan county, which is built in Qing dynasty. It is has been 170 years since Guanyuan Burmese Temple was built in 1828, its constructing style was influenced mostly by Han people; Meanwhile, it maintained the basic style of Theravada temples. Guangyun Burmese Temple was listed into the third batch of national key protection cultural relics by the State Council on January 13, 1988, due to its important position of history, territory, humanity cultures and religions.
Other Temples in Lincang
- Shangban Temple
- Lianjing Temple
- Sichuan Temple
- Baixiang Temple
- Zongfosi Temple
- Dongjing Temple
- Yunjue Temple
- Shengjiao Temple
Tea Culture in Lincang
Lincang has a long history of tea culture, and there are quite a few tea plantations. Lincang is the origin center and core area of the world tea tree and tea culture, and is the earliest area to discover and use tea. The ancient tea tree king in Xiangzhuqing of Fengqing county, whose age can be traced back to King Wu of Zhou period, is called "the grandmother of tea" and "the king of tea tree". The Bingdao ancient tea garden in Bingdao village of Mengku Town, Shuangjiang county, was first recorded in the 21st year of Chenghua (1485) in the Ming dynasty, and is the birthplace of Yunnan large-leaf tea. The ancient tea garden of Baiying mountain in Yunxian county records the process of tea tree from wild to complete cultivation and domestication, and is known as "tea tree natural history museum". According to historical records, more than 3,000 years ago, the ancient Pu people in Lincang (ancestors of the present Bulang, Lahu, Deang and Wa ethnic minorities) were the first to cultivate make and use tea.
Today, Fengqing county in Lincang city is the world famous "Hometown of Dianhong Black Tea". With the wide spreading fame of Dianhong tea, Tea Mountains are becoming popular tourist destinations for visitors to Lincang.
Tea Plantations in Lincang
- Anshi Dianhong Black Tea Plantations
- Xueshan Town Tea Plantation
- Xiangzhuqing Ancient Tea Tree
- The Ancient Tea Plantations
- Dahusai Tea Plantation
- Mengku Tea Mountain Area
- Mangfei Tea Mountain
- Lincang Tea Culture Garden
Except for Han, there are other 23 ethnic groups in Lincang. Among them, 11 ethnic groups, including Yi, Wa, Dai, Lahu, Bulang, Lisu, Hui, Miao, Deang, Bai and Jingpo, live in Lincang for generations. Lincang is the hometown of Wa in the world, is one of the birthplaces of Wa culture. Their traditional festivals are embodied in the local lifestyle.
Ethnic Towns in Lincang
There are 3 autonomous counties (Cangyuan Wa Autonomous County(沧源佤族自治县), Gengma Dai and Wa Autonomous County(耿马傣族佤族自治县), Shuangjiang Lahu, Wa, Bulang and Dai Autonomous County(双江拉祜族佤族布朗族傣族自治县), as well as 13 ethnic towns in Lincang, namely, Nanmei Lahu Ethnic Town(南美拉祜族乡), Pingcun Yi and Dai Ethnic Town(平村彝族傣族乡), Xinhua Yi and Miao Ethnic Town(新华彝族苗族乡), Yaojie Yi Ethnic Town(腰街彝族乡), Guo Dazhai Yi and Bai Ethnic Town(郭大寨彝族白族乡), Junsai Wa, Lahu, Lisu and Deang Ethnic Town(军赛佤族拉祜族傈僳族德昂族乡), Manghuai Yi and Bulang Ethnic Town(忙怀彝族布朗族乡), Lishu Yi and Dai Ethnic Town(栗树彝族傣族乡), Houqing Yi Ethnic Town(后箐彝族乡), Mengjiao Dai, Yi and Lahu Ethnic Town(勐角傣族彝族拉祜族乡), Manghong Lahu and Bulang Ethnic Town(芒洪拉祜族布朗族乡), Wumulong Yi Ethnic Town(乌木龙彝族乡) and Daxueshan Yi, Lahu, Dai Ethnic Township(大雪山彝族拉祜族傣族乡).
Traditional Ethnic Villages in Lincang
According to the list of traditional Chinese villages, there are many traditional ethnic villages in Lincang, mainly distributed in Cangyuan county, Fengqing county Yunxian County and Linxiang District. Here below are several of them.
- Wengding Village of Mengjiao Town in Cangyuan County, Lincang临沧市沧源县勐角乡翁丁村
- Dinglai Village of Menglai Town in Cangyuan County, Lincang临沧市沧源县勐来乡丁来村委会丁来村
- Gumo Village of Shili Town in Fengqing County, Lincang临沧市凤庆县诗礼乡古墨村委会古墨村
- Guji Village of Lushi Town in Fengqing County, Lincang临沧市凤庆县鲁史镇鲁史古集村
- Wanyao Pottery Village of Boshang Town in Linxiang District, Lincang临沧市临翔区博尚镇碗窑村碗窑组
- Houqing Village of Houqing Town in Yunxian County, Lincang临沧市云县后箐乡后箐村
Ethnic Festivals and Customs
Wa Ethnic Minority
Wa minority is one of the oldest people living in Lincang. The Wa people in Lincang City are mainly distributed in Cangyuan, Gengma, Yongde, Shuangjiang, Zhenkang and other places. Wa ethnic minority originated from the ancient Baipu ethnic group(百濮族群), at that time, they called themselves "Ba Rao", "A Wa" and so on. After 1962, it was collectively known as Wa minority. Wa has its own language, and it is divided into Buraoke, A Wa and Wa three dialects. The representative festivals of Wa are Monihei, New Rice Festival, etc.
Lahu Ethnic Minority
Lahu is one of the earlier ethnic groups in Yunnan. It moved into Lincang and Shuangjiang around the 11th century, mainly distributed in Shuangjiang, Linxiang district and Gengma. The Lahu people have their own language and writing, mainly believe in primitive religion, some believe in Christianity and Chinese Buddhism. The traditional festivals of Lahu include Qinming Festival, Duanwu Festival, Torch Festival, etc.
Bulang Ethnic Minority
The ancestors of the Bulang minority were the Pu people in ancient Yunnan, and they were one of the oldest indigenous peoples in Lincang. They are mainly distributed in Shuangjiang, Yunxian, Yongde and Gengma. The Bulang people have their own language but no writing, mainly believe in primitive religion and southern Buddhism. Festivals of Bulang are Hounan Festival, Guanmen (Closing Door) Festival, Kaimen (Opening Door) Festival, etc.
Deang Ethnic Minority
The Deang minority in Lincang belongs to the "Lao Pu Lao" and "Lao Pu Mao" branches, moved from Mengmao (present Ruili) and Myanmar. It is Mainly distributed in Zhenkang, Gengma, Yongde three counties. The Deang people have their own language but no writing, mainly believe in primitive religion and southern Buddhism. Major festivals of Deang are Guanmen Festival, Kaimen Festival, Shaobaichai festival, Zuobai Festival, etc.
Intangible Cultural Heritages and its Heritors in Lincang
With a large number of ethnic minorities, especially Wa, Bulang and Deang people, Lincang has some intangible cultural heritages with ethnic characteristics, including Wooden Drum Dance, Peacock Dance, Dai Elephant-foot Drum Making Craft, etc. Every intangible cultural heritage has its inheritors, who play a vital role in the promotion and inheritance of culture.
- Yunnan Intangible Cultural Heritages
- Intangible Cultural Heritages in Lincang
- Inheritors of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Lincang
Culture Tours including Lincang
Dianhong Black Tea Culture Tours
- 2 Days Fengqing Dianhong Black Tea Culture Tour from Dali
- 7 Days Kunming, Dali and Lijiang Tour with Dianhong Black Tea Culture Tour
- 7 Days Lincang Fengqing Dianhong Black Tea and Puer Organic Tea Tour
- 10 Days Yunnan Puer Tea and Dianhong Black Tea Tour to Lincang and Fengqing
- 11 Days Southwest Yunnan Dianhong Black Tea and Puer Tea Culture Tour
- 14 Days Southwest Yunnan Tea Culture Tour from Xishuangbanna to Puer and Lincang
Minority Discovery Tours
- 4 Days Cangyuan Wa Ethnic Minority Discovery Tour
- 6 Days Lincang Minority Discovery Tour with the Ancient Villages and the Wa Ethnic Culture
- Linxiang District Culture
- Cangyuan County Culture
- Fengqing County Culture
- Yunxian County Culture
- Yongde County Culture
- Zhenkang County Culture
- Shuangjiang County Culture
- Gengma County Culture