Mosques List in Xundian County, Kunming

Overview on the Mosques in Xundian(寻甸)

There are 82 mosques in Xundian Hui and Yi Autonomous County. By the end of 2007, the population of the Hui ethnic group reached more than 63.000, most of which were distributed in 12 villages and towns included Rende(仁德), Tangzi(塘子), Yangjie(羊街), Hekou(河口), Gongshan(功山), Jinsuo(金所), Xianfeng(先锋), Kedu(柯渡), Fengyi(凤仪), Jinyuan(金源), Diansha(甸沙) and Qixing(七星). The most concentrated villages with Hui people are Tianqiaodi(甜荞地), Sanyuanzhuang(三元庄), Huangtupo(黄土坡), Nalang(纳郎), Zhongqiao(中桥), Luchong(鲁冲), Tangzi(塘子), Huihuicun(回辉村), Dangui(丹桂), Xincun(新村), Houjie(猴街), Xishancun(西山村), Jishuicun(积水村) as well as some ethnically mixed villages amounted to 164. The earliest mosques have a history of more than 700 years.

ⅠArchitectural Style

The mosque is a symbol of the Hui village. It is a holy place where the Muslims do worshiping, chanting and other religious activities. It is also called the Temple of Prayer. The Arabic language is “Masjid” meaning “a place of worshiping Allah”.

The existing 82 mosques were built in the Ming and Qing dynasties and also over the period of the Republic of China. Dangui Mosque(丹桂寺)and Huihui Mosque(回辉寺)in Kedu, Sanyuanzhuang Mosque(三元庄寺) and Tianqiaodi Mosque(甜荞地寺)in Yangjie, Pulu Mosque(普鲁寺)in Xianfeng, Hongguoying Mosque(红果营寺)in Gongshan, Tangzida Mosque(塘子大寺)and Yilong Mosque(易隆寺)in Tangzi, Luchongda Mosque(鲁冲大寺)in Hekou, Beiying Mosque(北营清真大寺)in Rende and Zhonggucheng Mosque(中古城清真寺)are some famous mosques built in the Ming dynasty.

The architectural style of mosques are quite different from ancient to modern times. The layout of the prayer hall in ancient mosques is similar to that of imperial palaces. The minaret is mostly pavilion-style attic made up of several floors. However , the modern mosques are mostly a combination of Chinese and Western style of architecture with Arabic characteristics, such as green domes, spire topped with the crescent moon and star. The doors and windows of many ancient mosques still have beautiful carvings on the pavilions. Most of them are vivid landscape paintings of the kingdom of birds, reflecting the integration of the cultures of Han and Hui people.

Components of Mosque Complexes

  1. Main Prayer Hall (朝真殿):
    • This hall is reserved for worship and religious activities, and secular discussions are not allowed. Only those who have purified themselves and are dressed in clean clothes can enter for prayers, chanting, and teaching. The hall typically faces west to east, with a recessed wall in the center featuring wooden carvings of Quranic verses in Arabic.
  2. Living Quarters:
    • These include the Imam’s residence, kitchen, washroom, and bathing area, usually located on the side or in the gaps between the main hall and wing rooms.
  3. Educational Area:
    • The north and south wing rooms often serve as classrooms, student dormitories, and offices.
  4. Minaret (叫拜楼 or 宣礼楼):
    • Used for moon sighting, timekeeping, and calling for prayer, minarets are typically tall, multi-story pavilion-style towers or high spires. They often include additional rooms for commercial or service activities, making them central to religious, educational, and economic activities.

Development History

Flourishing and Challenges

The construction of mosques in Xundian has seen both flourishing periods and significant challenges over its 700-year history. During the Yuan and Ming dynasties, mosque construction reached its peak, with 48 mosques recorded by the end of the Ming dynasty. The early Qing period saw further development, but the late Qing period brought destruction due to the “Xiantong Rebellion,” which nearly wiped out the Hui population and destroyed all mosques. Reconstruction began gradually in the late Qing and early Republic of China periods.

Post-1958 Period

Following the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, the government’s policies of equality and mutual assistance allowed for the restoration of 63 mosques (including those transferred to other counties). Unfortunately, during the Anti-Rightist Movement in 1958 and the Cultural Revolution, many mosques were closed, repurposed, or demolished, and religious activities went underground.

Modern Era

Over the past 30 years of reform and opening up, the government’s policies have protected and respected religious beliefs, leading to the reopening and reconstruction of mosques. More than 20 new mosques have been built to meet the growing needs of the Muslim community.

Muslim Travel Tips

  • Visiting Mosques: When visiting mosques, dress modestly and respectfully. Remove shoes before entering prayer halls and follow local customs.
  • Respect Religious Practices: Avoid engaging in secular discussions inside the mosque and participate quietly if observing prayers or religious activities.
  • Explore Local Culture: Take time to explore the surrounding Hui villages and learn about the rich cultural integration of the Han and Hui people.
  • Engage with the Community: Visiting local schools and community centers can provide deeper insights into the educational and cultural practices of the Hui people in Xundian.

三、List of Mosques in Xundian County

序号 所在乡、镇 场所名称 详细地址 始建年代
1

鲁冲清真寺 鲁冲村委会鲁冲村 元代
2 长房子清真寺 鲁冲村委会长房子村 新建
3 小龙潭清真寺 鲁冲村委会小龙潭村 新建
4 浪泥坪清真寺 化桃箐村委会浪泥坪 明代
5 新坪清真寺 化桃箐村委会新坪村 新建
6

甸岗清真寺 金源村委会甸岗村 明代
7 安丰清真寺 安丰村委会安丰村 明代
8 根恩清真寺 安丰村委会根恩村 新建
9 石窝铺清真寺 沧溪村委会石窝铺村 清代
10 甸沙 洒井清真寺 甸沙村委会洒井村 明代
11

甸头清真寺 甸头村委会甸头小村 清代
12 菜地清真寺 菜地村村委会小新村 明代
13 红果营清真寺 三保村委会红果营村 元代
14 大水塘清真寺 三保村委会大水塘村 明代
15 丫口塘清真寺 三保村委会丫口塘村 明代
16

甸头清真寺 丹桂村委会甸头村 明代
17 凤鸣清真寺 丹桂村委会甸头村 明代
18 丹桂清真寺 丹桂村委会丹桂村 明代
19 柯渡街清真寺 柯渡村委会柯渡街 明代
20 回辉村清真寺 柯渡村委会回辉村 明代
21 凹椅子清真寺 新村村委会凹椅子村 明代
22 庵上清真寺 新村村委会庵上村 明代
23 虎街清真寺 新村村委会虎街子村 清代
24 新村清真寺 新村村委会新村 明代
25 磨腮清真寺 磨腮村委会磨腮村 明代
26 马庄清真寺 磨腮村委会马庄村镇 明代
27 落塘清真寺 新沙村委会落塘村 明代
28 古城清真寺 新庄村委会古城村 明代
29 大村清真寺 新庄村委会大村 新建
30 下村清真寺 新村村委下村 新建
31 背水箐清真寺 磨腮村委会背水箐村 新建
32 中村清真寺 新庄村委会中村 明代
33

石洞门清真寺 普鲁村委会石洞门村 新建
34 鲁支本清真寺 窑上村委会鲁支本村 清代
35 姚家村清真寺 鲁土村委会姚家村 清代
36 墩子清真寺 富鲁村委会墩子村 清代
37 松树地清真寺 富鲁村委会松树地村 清代
38 富尔阁清真寺 富鲁村委会富尔阁村 明代
39 且卖姑清真寺 普鲁村委会且卖姑村 明代
40 普鲁清真寺 普鲁村委会普鲁村 明代
41 石头地清真寺 普鲁村委会石头地村 新建
42

赵回上村清真寺 江外村委会赵回上村 明代
43 赵回下村清真寺 腊味村委会赵回下村 明代
44 袜笼清真寺 江格村委会袜笼村 清代
45 江格清真寺 江格村委会江格村 清代
46

北营清真寺 学府村委会北营街 明代
47 玉屏清真寺 南钟村委会玉屏村 明代
48 海子屯清真寺 建设村委会海子屯村 新建
49 新发村清真寺 北观村委会新发村 清代
50 新村清真寺 和平村委会新村 明代
51 白家村清真寺 和平村委会白家村 明代
52 中古城清真寺 中桥村委会中古城村 明代
53 下古城清真寺 中桥村委会下古城村 明代
54 蛤蟆塘清真寺 中桥村委会蛤蟆塘村 明代
55 三眼井清真寺 北观村委会三眼井村 新建
56 雨布村清真寺 中桥村委会雨布村 明代
57

塘子清真寺 塘子村委会塘子村 明代
58 石头嘴清真寺 塘子村委会石头嘴村 明代
59 小华坡清真寺 塘子村委会小华坡村 新建
60 小横山清真寺 塘子村委会小横山村 清代
61 西山村清真寺 塘子村委会西山村 新建
62 聂鼠笼清真寺 云集村委会聂鼠笼村 新建
63 易隆清真寺 易隆村委会易隆村 明代
64

栽开清真寺 泽铁村委会栽开村 明代
65 白家哨清真寺 天生桥村委会白家哨村 明代
66 马嘎清真寺 新田村委会马嘎村 新建
67

黄土坡清真寺 羊街镇黄土坡村 明代
68 三元庄清真寺 羊街镇三元庄村 明代
69 新街清真寺 羊街镇新街村 新建
70 纳郎清真寺 羊街镇纳郎村 明代
71 花箐哨清真寺 清水沟村委会花箐哨村 新建
72 羊街清真寺 羊街镇村委会羊街村 新建
73 甜荞地清真寺 甜荞地村委会甜荞地村 明代
74

昔卡里清真寺 集城村委会昔卡里村 新建
75 小书米丹清真寺 集城村委会小书米丹村 明代
76 西山村清真寺 集城村委会西山村 明代
77 落锁清真寺 积水村委会落锁村 明代
78 积水塘清真寺 积水村委会积水塘村 新建
79 的哩卡清真寺 积水村委会的哩卡村 新建
80 集宝清真寺 发来古村委会集宝古村 明代
81 大双岭清真寺 牛街村委大双岭村 新建
82 白燕找清真寺 积水村委会北燕找村 新建

Mosque Education

Historical Background

Mosque education in Xundian began during the Ming Dynasty and continues to this day. Schools are either run independently by a single mosque or collectively by several mosques. The curriculum includes both Arabic and Chinese studies, divided into three stages: primary, secondary, and higher education. For example, Beiying Mosque in Rende Town once ran a university and a complete Arabic-Chinese primary school.

Stages of Education

Primary Education

Primary education in mosques includes short-term classes such as early morning and night reading sessions. The courses cover:

  • Familiarization with the “Hetting” (Selected Chapters of the Quran)
  • “Miscellaneous Studies”
  • “Tianfang Belief Chapters”
  • Learning Arabic Alphabet Pronunciation, Phonetics, and Recitation

Secondary Education

Secondary education requires students to:

  • Memorize the “Heiwoyi” (Fundamentals of Morphology)
  • Master the rules of verb conjugation
  • Familiarize with the entire “Quran”
  • Study “Hadith Pearls” (Hadith Compilation)
  • Study “Muhsiy Motai” (Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence)
  • Study “Ermude” (Pillars of Islam)

Higher Education

Higher education involves learning the Five Great Books:

  1. “Maliayi” (Grammar System)
  2. “Zhelaiani” (Quranic Exegesis)
  3. “Weiqiaye” (Jurisprudence Commentary)
  4. “Ergeyi” (Theology Outline)
  5. “Baiyani” (Rhetoric)

Upon mastering these texts, students can graduate and become called Ahongs (Imams), capable of leading the community.

Education Format

  • Primary Education: Primarily extracurricular, essential for Muslim boys and girls from a young age.
  • Secondary and Higher Education: Full-time, aimed at training Ahongs (Imams). Students include local Hui children and youth from other provinces. Funding is provided by mosques, with living expenses often supported by volunteers known as “Haiwangde,” who may sponsor one or more students.

Prominent Mosque School

The most notable period of mosque education in Xundian was during the Republic of China in 1925. The Xundian Islamic Progress Association President Zhang Lianfang and Imam Ma Chongzhi founded the Huisheng Arabic-Chinese School. They hired the renowned Ahong Ma Weihai (1895-1983) as the head teacher, with Zhang Lianfang serving as the principal and teaching Chinese.

  • Funding: Mosque public land revenue and voluntary contributions from “Haiwangde.”
  • Free Education: Students attended without charge.
  • Significance: The only Islamic university in Yunnan at the time, predating the Kunming Mingde Middle School by four years.
  • Influence: Attracted ambitious youth from across Yunnan and neighboring regions like Guizhou (Anshun, Weining), reaching over 80 students across three grades and classes, and lasted for 15 years.

Muslim Travel Tips

  • Respect Religious Practices: Ensure to follow the customs and practices when visiting mosques.
  • Dress Appropriately: Modest and clean clothing is required.
  • Understand the Educational Heritage: Visiting mosques with a historical background in education can provide deeper insights into the local Hui culture and traditions.
  • Support Local Efforts: Consider contributing to the community’s educational initiatives or volunteering to support mosque activities.

Historical Evolution and Current State of Mosque Education in Xundian

Key Historical Developments

1940s-1950s

  • 1940: Imam Ma Weihai visited his hometown in Xuanwei and was later recruited by Zhaotong.
  • 1942: Principal Zhang Lianfang passed away. The Huisheng School was renamed Huisheng Arabic-Chinese Primary School, with Bao Zhanxing and Tie Shixun succeeding as principals.
  • 1942-1950: Prominent teachers included Suo Mingdao, Ma Zhiping, and Imam Ma Zhizhong (1908-1989) from Zhaotong. The school offered standard primary education with an additional Arabic curriculum. It had two classes: primary and advanced, with over 60 students, including three Han Chinese students who attended for free. By 1950, the school had trained over 300 students, producing imams, teachers, and government officials.

1985 Onwards

  • 1985: With the gradual implementation of the Party’s ethnic and religious policies, some mosques reinstated parts of their Arabic-Chinese schools to spread ethnic culture and train religious management personnel. Early schools included:
    • Huihui Village Mosque in Kedu
    • Luchong Mosque in Hekou
    • Huisheng School at Beiying Mosque in Rende Town
  • 1991: The county Islamic Association, with government approval, established the Kedu Town Arabic-Chinese School at Huihui Village Mosque, funded by 15 mosques.
  • 1995: The county government formally reinstated the Xundian Huisheng Arabic-Chinese School, with male and female schools located at Beiying Mosque and Zhonggucheng Mosque, respectively. Over the years, it graduated six cohorts of about 200 students, some of whom pursued further studies or worked for Islamic associations or mosques, while others engaged in various business activities.

Current Educational Initiatives

  • Short-term and Literacy Classes: Mosques, based on local needs and resources, organize short-term and literacy classes, such as:
    • Fengyi Township: Xiaoshumidian Mosque
    • Xianfeng Township: Songshudi Mosque
    • Yangjie: Sanyuanzhuang Mosque
    • Jinsuo Township: Baijiaoshào Mosque
    • Rende Town: Baijiacun Mosque, Haizituan Mosque
    • Qixing Township: Shang Zhao and Xia Zhao Hui Villages’ Mosques
    • Tangzi and Luchong Mosques

These mosques offer elementary classes, Quran recitation classes, and student holiday training sessions to popularize classical knowledge and enhance religious faith.

  • Pre-school Education: Baijiaoshào Mosque in Jinsuo Township has consistently run a preschool class since 2000, facilitating early education and enabling parents to work in the fields.

Challenges in Mosque Education

  1. Student Recruitment: It is challenging to attract excellent students. Many of the students recruited are those who did not progress through regular national education systems, making it difficult to cultivate a large number of high-quality imams.
  2. Funding: Insufficient funds make it difficult to provide adequate salaries for teachers, affecting the stability of the teaching workforce.

Despite these challenges, mosque education in Xundian has seen progress over the past two decades, contributing to the preservation and dissemination of Islamic and ethnic culture.