Efficacy of Yunnan Baiyao
Yunnan Baiyao products are classed as dietary supplements or new drugs by the FDA, and are not generally recognized as safe and effective for the prevention, mitigation, or treatment of wounds, pain, and hemorrhage among other conditions. The European Medicines Agency has not assessed the safety or efficacy of the product as a hemostatic. It is not listed on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG) for approved sale in Australia, and the quality, safety, or efficacy of Yunnan Baiyao has not been established by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration.
Oral administration was shown to produce negligible results in laboratory tests. In vitro studies have suggested a theoretical benefit in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Some studies have found heavy metal levels below oral tolerance levels, however the significance of this finding is not known. Multiple routes of drug administration results in varying degrees of efficacy. Topical administration has been shown to have a degree of efficacy possibly through ultrastructural changes in platelets and platelet-constituent release. The effect of Yunnan Baiyao on the coagulation biochemical system has not been fully elucidated, but it has been suggested that the expression of glycoproteins on platlets plays a role. One in vitro study found that Yunnan Baiyao causes dose and time dependent hemangiosarcoma cell death through initiation of caspase-mediated cell apoptosis in a canine cell cancer line but did not suggest usefulness in patients. Another study found no significant difference from placebo regarding buccal mucosal bleeding time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and clotting parameters in canines. There is no high-quality evidence supporting the use of Yunnan Baiyao for either rheumatoid arthritis or hemangiosarcoma available in publicly reported scientific literature as of 2019.