The tricoloured munia (Lonchura malacca/栗腹文鸟) is an estrildid finch, native to India, Sri Lanka, Southern China, Taiwan and most of Southeast Asia. The species was also introduced to Guam, Jamaica, Palau, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Vanuatu and Venezuela. This species too like the chestnut munia has been known as the black-headed munia in the past. Immature birds have pale brown upperparts, lack the dark head found in adults, and have uniform buff underparts that can be confused with immatures of other munias such as the scaly-breasted munia.
The chestnut munia was formerly considered conspecific with this species. Estrildinae may have originated in India and dispersed thereafter (towards Africa and Pacific Ocean habitats).
The tricoloured munia is a small gregarious bird which feeds mainly on grain and other seeds. It inhabits wet grassland habitats. It may also be found in tropical lowland moist forest habitats.