Dian Opera 滇剧
Yunnan Opera is one of the local operas in Yunnan Province. Silk string (originated from the earlier Qin Opera), Xiangyang (originated from the Xianghe School of Han Diao) and Huqin (originated from Hui Diao) were introduced to Yunnan from the late Ming Dynasty to the Qianlong Period of Qing Dynasty and gradually developed. They were popular in the vast areas of more than 90 counties and cities in Yunnan and parts of Sichuan and Guizhou.
On June 7, 2008, Yunnan Dian Opera House, Yuxi Dian Opera Troupe and Kunming City jointly declared “Dian Opera” which was approved by the State Council and listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list. Heritage serial number: 733 IV-132.
Yunnan Opera was gradually developed from silk string (originated from earlier Qin Opera), Xiangyang (originated from Xianghe School of Han Diao) and Huqin (originated from Hui Diao) into Yunnan from the end of Ming Dynasty to the Qianlong Period of Qing Dynasty. It was popular in more than 90 counties and cities in Yunnan and parts of Sichuan and Guizhou.
Yunnan Opera is a kind of opera. Yunnan Opera consists of three kinds of tunes and parts: Silk String, Xiangyang and Huqin.
From the late Ming Dynasty to the Qianlong Period of Qing Dynasty, miscellaneous tunes were introduced to Yunnan and gradually developed. They gradually absorbed local folk art and formed their own local operas. The three loud tunes of Yunnan Opera, silk strings, Huqin, Xiangyang and some miscellaneous tunes, all originate from the opera tunes transmitted from other provinces: silk strings originate from Qin Opera, Huqin from Hui Opera, Xiangyang from Chu Opera (renamed Han Opera after the 1911 Revolution). After the introduction of the three tunes into Yunnan, the three loud tunes of Yunnan Opera were formed by combining the dialectal sounds, local customs and folk music of Yunnan Province. In addition, Kuntouzi and inverted board of Yunnan Opera are related to Kun Opera, while flat panel, bridge-erecting, ginseng tune and Anqing tune are related to blowing tune (also known as Shipai Tune). These tunes merged on the stage of Yunnan opera to form Yunnan opera.
The development of Yunnan Opera has gone through several stages, including the Qing Dynasty, the 1911 Revolution, the Republic of China and the founding of New China. In the Qing Dynasty, Yunnan Opera was bred, formed and developed into a period of gradual prosperity. Following the three Yunnan Opera troupes mentioned earlier, Taihong, Qingshou, Fusheng and other troupes appeared, and Yulin troupes also appeared in Qujing area. By the time of Guangxu, Yunnan Opera had become more prosperous. There are not only professional theatres, but also amateur Yunnan opera troupes in rural areas. During the Revolution of 1911, Yunnan Opera gradually established theatres, Mengzi, Gejiu, Dongchuan and other places have also appeared theatres. After the Revolution of 1911, amateur Yunnan opera artists such as Liang Xingzhou and Ye Shaozhuang collected more than 200 small plays, which were printed and distributed widely. During the period of the Republic of China, Yunnan Opera went from prosperity to decline. Especially during the War of Resistance Against Japan, reactionary officer Yang Zheng made personal insults to artists by arresting, beating, closing and scolding them. Many artists were forced to displace and flee to other places. Yang also brought in some young people to set up science classes and perform dramas to promote feudal superstitions. Due to the devastation of the reactionaries, on the eve of the founding of New China, Yunnan Opera was on the verge of extinction.
According to Qiao Jiarui, vice-chairman and secretary-general of Yunnan Dramatists Association, after the founding of New China, the state-run Yunnan Opera Troupe has been set up in many provinces, prefectures, cities and counties through three activities of “changing people, operas and systems”. In 1950, the experimental Yunnan Opera Troupe was set up in the province. In 1953, the experimental Yunnan Opera Troupe was changed into the provincial Yunnan Opera Troupe. In 1960, the provincial Yunnan Opera Troupe was established. During this period, many outstanding liberal arts graduates were also assigned to the Yunnan Opera Troupe, recording and sorting out a number of traditional operas. The troupe and the Provincial School of Literature and Art recruited and trained hundreds of Yunnan Opera actors, directors, music and dancers, which greatly enriched the new strength of Yunnan Opera.
Yunnan Opera has gained new life and rapid development.
Everything is prosperous and declining. By the end of the 1980s, people’s living standards had been greatly improved, their spiritual needs had been different, and Yunnan Opera also showed signs of decline under the impact of various cultures. Although Yunnan Opera has a high artistic form, pays attention to “four skills, five methods, singing, sitting and playing”, and has the pleasure of “enjoying both elegance and vulgarity, enjoying all ages and interesting”, to a certain extent, Yunnan Opera needs to be decoded. A person who does not understand the ancient opera culture at all will feel confused when he first contacts with it, and the new generation will inevitably be attracted by something more acceptable and entertaining. After the 1990s, the reconstruction of spiritual civilization was put forward. Culture such as water and moistening things is silent. Ancient operas need to be protected. The establishment of various awards, such as Wenhua Award and Plum Blossom Award, has protected the development of Yunnan Opera. The Dian Opera Flower Lantern Art Week also promoted the revitalization of local art such as Dian Opera Flower Lantern.
The performing arts of Yunnan Opera inherit and absorb Hui, Han and Qin Opera. Yunnan is a multi-ethnic province, known as “the sea of national art”. In the course of its development, Yunnan Opera has been performing on the grass-roots stage for a long time in the countryside, absorbing folk art, and has national and local characteristics. Many famous artists have their own tricks, such as Pan Hong in Li Shaobai’s Trial of Pan Hong, who can show Pan Hong’s complex feelings of panic and anxiety by shifting the height of his veil cap on his head; Jinshan, a flower-faced bud, in “Plum Blossom Hammer”, uses only one action to lock the door, so that the audience seems to hear the sound of the lock spring entering the lock, thus expressing his sympathy for the prisoners and his feelings towards the government. Anger; as the name of Xu Shengli Chengzhi, his roles as loyal and honest Zhang Yuanxiu in Qingfeng Pavilion, witty and calm Baihuai in Horse House Fire, and Song Shijie in Four Jinshi are vivid. In particular, Kong Ming in “Seven Star Lanterns” has a heavy burden on singers. In order to show his dedication and spirit after death, he must sing more and more declining, and his heart and soul will not fail. Li Chengzhi City performs just right and is known as “the Taidou of Yunnan Opera”.
The performances of Yunnan Opera are good at portraying characters and full of life flavor. For example, Niu Gang and Lu Wenliang in “The Tentative Purpose of Niu Gao” and Ni Jun and Yin Bilian in “Fire Down the Mountain” are all actions with rich life content, which show the contradictory process of the characters and reflect the ideological feelings of the characters. Another feature is that the language is vivid, popular and fluent, with the style of local folk songs, such as “Qin Xianglian” in a lot of lyrics.
Introduction to sound chamber
Silk string tune originated from Qin Opera, which is one of the three main elements of Yunnan Opera. It can be used in comedy and tragedy as well as in sweet and bitter songs. Hu Qin originated from the Shipai tune of Hui Diao, which is similar to the Erhuang tune, so it is similar to the Erhuang tune of Peking Opera, but different from the Erhuang tune of Peking Opera, there is no “original board”. Among them, there is a kind of “plum flower board” which is changed from the “second-rate”. It can sing dozens of sentences without realizing its complexity. It is really like crying and complaining; it is often used in “Daiyu burning manuscripts” and so on. In a melancholy play.
Xiangyang Opera comes from Xianghe School of Hubei Han Opera. Because of its long-term popularity and continuous development in Yunnan, and its local voice singing, it is not the same as Xipi, a Chinese opera, but has its own style. It is characterized by smooth melody, light melody and humor, and is good at expressing relaxed and happy mood.
Huqin tune is Erhuang, which comes from Hui tune. After entering Yunnan, it also has local characteristics. Its tune is solemn and euphemistic. Miscellaneous tunes include “seven and a half sentences” accompanied by Suona, “cylindrical cavity” accompanied by Nanhu, and “lessons” accompanied by gongs and drums and percussion instruments, which are mostly used in life plays.
Several kinds of vocal tunes are mainly used in silk string tunes. Generally, there are two kinds of situations: one is a play, the other is singing in the end, such as “Spring and Autumn Matching”, “Meijiang Obscene”, “Huatian Mistake” and “Van King Palace”. The other is the mixed use of various vocal tunes, artists call “two pots” or “three pots”, such as “Erlongshan”. 》 It is Hu Qin and Xiangyang’s “two pots”, “three sacrifices to the river” and “killing four doors” that are “three pots”.
The three main voice chambers of Yunnan Opera are all plate-type variants, with inverted boards, noses (similar to Huilong, but more changes), one word, second-class, third-board and rolling boards. In addition, each voice has its own unique board-style singing tune, such as the Silk String Tune has Anqing tune, Baer tune, 24 bangles, flying bangles, etc. Huqin tune has flat, bridge-erecting, plum flower board, ginseng tune and so on. The accompaniment instrument silk string tune is mainly saw-piano (similar to the two-strand string of Qin Opera), Xiangyang Opera and Huqin Opera are mainly Huqin Opera. In addition, there are Nanhu, Yueqin, Sanxian, Sala (Da Suona), Chicken (Xiao Shuo Na), Flute and so on. Percussion instruments include small drums, big drums, bangs, handles, big gongs, small gongs, cymbals, ringing, cymbals and so on.
Classification of drama
Yiliang Dian Opera
The performance of Yunnan Opera in Yiliang County of Kunming City was earlier. According to the Records of Opera in Qujing District, there were Yunnan Opera troupes organized by Chen Weichun in Yiliang County at the end of Qing Dynasty and the beginning of Republic of China. They mainly performed Folk Opera and Tiaogang Opera adapted from local folk stories. Because of the frequent performances, a large number of Yunnan opera artists have been trained. In 1953, Yiliang set up the “Xiexing Dian Opera Society” to absorb some Dian Opera artists scattered among the people into the society. In 1955, Yiliang’s Yunnan Opera troupe was merged with the Yunnan Opera Troupe in Qujing area, and the first troupe of the Yunnan Opera Troupe in Qujing area was established in Yiliang. In 1959, Yiliang established the Yunnan Opera Troupe in Yiliang County on the basis of the first team of Yunnan Opera. Peng Guozhen, Zhu Bayin, Xiao Bayin, Qi Shaobin and Yin Shitai, the famous Yunnan Opera actors, were the early backbone of the troupe.
In 1967, the Yunnan Opera Troupe of Yiliang County was dissolved. In 1979, the Yunnan Opera Troupe was restored on the basis of Yiliang County Literature and Art Propaganda Team. It not only recruited some old performers of Yunnan Opera, but also absorbed a group of young performers. It performed the Yunnan Opera series “The Civet Cat for the Prince”, “Seven Chivalrous and Five Justices”, “Three Sisters Down to Earth”, “Yang Jia-jung” and “Fan Li Hua”. The audience was very enthusiastic and the performance of Yunnan Opera was flourishing day by day. After 1975, the Yunnan Opera Troupe of Yiliang County created historical plays such as Tin Bo Tide and Military Personnel Wearing Gowns, and participated in the Qujing Literary and Art Festival and won prizes. Later, he created Folk Tale Drama “Rabbit Immortal Save the Dragon”, “Wild Chrysanthemum”, “New Legend of Green Forest” and other plays, which won prizes in Kunming Drama Performance.
Fengqing Dian Opera
Yunnan Opera in Fengqing County, Lincang City, has a long history. The earliest time for its introduction was in 1906. Liu Jinyu’s “Tianqing Class” came to perform there and was loved by the local people. After that, a group of Yunnan Opera ticket-holders came into being. Some local officials and gentry raised funds to build stage, buy costumes, organize performances, and continuously invited Yunnan Opera Troupe and famous actors to perform many Yunnan Opera repertoires. The influence of Yunnan Opera in Fengqing’s performance activities increased and spread more widely. During this process, a group of local ticket-holders with certain attainments were produced, including Sheng, Dan, Jing and Ugly. Some of them also took classes to go to Shanghai to perform Yunnan Opera for a living. In 1933, the first amateur Yunnan Opera Society “Shangyou Society” was established. Most of the plays were “Yunnan Opera Grand View”, “New Yunnan Opera” and “Yunnan Opera Qupu” published by Wubentang, Daxin Bookstore and Ruihua Bookstore in 1935, and some Sichuan Opera repertoires were transplanted. During the Anti-Japanese War, “Shangyou Society” repeatedly raised donations to perform such dramas as “Mulan Enlisted in the Army”, “Suwu Shepherd” and “Yuefei Biography”. All the income was donated to the front or disaster areas, and was praised by the provincial government at that time. Shunning Yunnan Opera Troupe was founded in 1953 and later changed to Fengqing Yunnan Opera Troupe.
After years of performance practice, Fengqing Dian Opera Troupe has basically formed a complete line-up, singing, reading, doing and playing style, which has a certain impact on the performance team of Dian Opera. While retaining the traditional repertoire, it has contributed to the reform of the aria of Dian Opera. For example, Zhao Xingren’s “anti-silk string”, “anti-Erhuang” and “five-tone circadian circadian circadian circadian circadian circadian” which combines “Xiangyang”, “Huqin”, “silk string” and miscellaneous minors have enriched and developed Yunnan opera singing. At the same time, a number of important and representative original local dramas such as “Night Plum”, “Double Injustice Case”, “Birthday Cake”, “Borrowing Dowry”, “Yanglao Wakes the Dreamer”, “Golden Fire”, “Wish”, “Target”, “Golden Autumn Banquet” and “Queen Bee Selects Son-in-law” have been produced. They have participated in provincial festivals and won prizes, and have trained a number of original local dramas. Performers and playwrights with some influence.
Due to the changes in production and lifestyle and the diversification of cultural consumption, the Yunnan Opera Troupe in the county has rarely performed Yunnan Opera since its dissolution in 1990. However, many amateurs and folk artists still organize drum-rounding performances such as “bench opera” on holidays or on red-and-white occasions.
Address：Niujiezhuang Village, Guandu District, Kunming
Dian Opera: Local Opera of Yunnan Province